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How Does Internet Work | Understanding The Internet | Internet Services

How Internet Works Step By Step: My dear friends, in today’s article, I will tell you about Internet that how it is works, how the data will transfer and what is the main source that connecting all of us from worlds one corner to another and many more facts about internet working strategy. If you have any query than must comment below and share your valuable feedback.

How Does Internet Works | How Does Device Connect to the Internet

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How Does The Internet Work?


How Does Internet Actually Get to Us?


Concept of an IP address


From Where Does The Internet Get IP Addresses?


How to Transfer the Data


What is Packets?



How Does The Internet Work?

The data center which can be thousands of miles away. An easy way to achieve this goal would be with use of satellites. From the data center; a signal could be sent to the satellite via an antenna. Then from the satellite a signal could be sent to our mobile phone via another antenna near to us. This way of transmitting signals is not a good idea.


The satellite is parked nearly 22,000 miles above the earth's equator. So, in order for the data transmission to be successful. The data would have to travel a total distance of 44,000 miles; such a long distance of travel causes a significant delay in receiving the signal. More specifically it causes huge latency which is unacceptable for most internet applications.


How Does Internet Actually Get to Us?

It is done with the help of a complicated network of optical fiber cables, which connect between the data center and our device. Our phone could be connected to the internet via cellular data or any Wi-Fi router but ultimately at some point our phone will be connected to this network of optical fiber cables.


It is stored in a Solid State Device (SSD) within the data center. This SSD acts as the internal memory of a server. The server is simply a powerful computer whose job is to provide us the stored content when we request it.


Concept of an IP address:

Before proceeding further we should first understand an important concept which is the concept of an IP address. Every device that is connected to the Internet, whether it is a server a computer or a mobile phone is identified uniquely by a string of numbers known as an IP address.


We can consider the IP address similar to our home address that is the address that uniquely identifies our home. Any letter sent to we reaches we precisely because of our home address. Similarly in the internet world an IP address acts as a shipping address through which all information reaches its destination.


Our internet service provider will decide the IP address of our device. Then we are able to see what IP address, our ISP has given to our mobile phone or laptop. The server in the data center also has an IP address. The server stores a website so we can access any website just by knowing the server's IP address.


However, it is difficult for a person to remember so many IP addresses. So, to solve this problem domain names like;, etc. are used which correspond to IP addresses. Which are easier for us to remember than the long sequence of numbers.


Another thing to notice here is that a server has the capability of storing several websites. If the server consists of multiple websites than all the websites cannot be accessed with the server's IP address. In such cases additional pieces of information, host headers are used to uniquely identify the website.


However, for the giant web sites like or the The entire data center infrastructure will be dedicated to the storage of the particular website. To access the internet we always use domain names instead of the complex IP address numbers.


From Where Does The Internet Get IP Addresses?

Well, for this purpose the internet uses a huge phone book known as DNS. If we know a person's name but don't know their telephone number than we can simply look it up in a phone book. The DNS server provides the same service to the internet. Our internet service provider or other organizations can manage the DNS server.


Let's have understanding the whole operation. We enter the domain name then the browser sends a request to the DNS server to get the corresponding IP address. After getting the IP address, our browser simply forwards the request to the data center, more specifically to the respective server. Once the server gets a request to access a particular website the data flow starts.


How to Transfer the Data:

The data is transferred in digital format via optical fiber cables, more specifically in the form of light pulses. These light pulses sometimes have to travel thousands of miles via the optical fiber cable to reach their destination. During their journey they often have to go through tough terrains such as hilly areas or under the sea.


There are a few global companies who lay and maintain these optical cable networks. These visuals show how the laying of optical fiber cables is done with the help of a ship. A plow is dropped deep into the sea from the ship. Then this plow creates a trench on these abed and to which places the optical fiber cable. In fact this complex optical cable network is the backbone of the Internet. These optical fiber cables carrying the light are stretched across the seabed to our doorstep; where they are connected to a router. The router converts these light signals to electrical signals.


An Ethernet cable is then used to transmit the electrical signals to our laptop. However, if we are accessing the Internet using cellular data from the optical cable than the signal has to be sent to a cell to our. From the cell to the signal reaches our cell phone in the form of electromagnetic waves.


Since the Internet is a global network it has become important to have an organization to manage things like; IP address assignment, domain name registration etc. this is all managed by an institution called ICANN located in the USA.


One amazing thing about the internet is its efficiency in transmitting data when compared with cellular and landline communication technologies. This article we are watching from the Google Data Center. That is sent to us in the form of a huge collection of zeros and ones. What makes the data transfer in the internet efficient is the way in which these zeros and ones are chopped up into small chunks known as packets and transmitted.


What is Packets?

Let's assume these streams of zeros and ones are divided into different packets; by the server where each packet consists of six bits. Along with the bits of the article each packet also consists of the sequence number and the IP addresses of the server and our phone; with this information the packets are routed towards our phone.


It's not necessary that all packets are routed through the same path. Each packet independently takes the best route available at that time. Upon reaching our phone the packets are reassembled according to their sequence number. If it is the case that any packets fail to reach our phone than acknowledgement is sent from our phone to resend the lost packets.


Now compare this with a postal network with a good infrastructure. But the customers do not follow the basic rules regarding the destination addresses. In this scenario letters won't be able to reach the correct destination. Similarly in the internet we use something called protocols for the management of this complex flow of data packets.


The protocols set the rules for data packet conversion. Attachment of the source and destination addresses to each packet. And the rules for routers etc. for different applications the protocols used are different.



We hope this article has given us a good understanding about how the internet works. More specifically about the amazing journey of data packets from the data center to our mobile phone. Please don't forget to support us by sharing this article.


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