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Nightingale of India Sarojini Naidu Biography

Welcome to the fascinating world of Sarojini Naidu, a trailblazing poet, orator, and freedom fighter who left an indelible mark on India's history.

Known as the Nightingale of India, Naidu's life story is a captivating journey of resilience, eloquence, and unwavering dedication to the fight for independence. From her early days as a child prodigy to becoming the first woman president of the Indian National Congress.

Join us as we delve into the extraordinary life and legacy of Sarojini Naidu, a true embodiment of courage and poetic brilliance.

Sarojini Naidu Biography
Sarojini Naidu Biography


📖 Topic of Contents:

  1. Introduction
  2. Early life and education
  3. Political career and activism
  4. Literary contributions and achievements
  5. Legacy and impact on Indian society
  6. Conclusion
  7. FAQs


Early life and education

Sarojini Naidu, also known as Sarojini Chattopadhyay, was born on February 13, 1879, in Hyderabad, India. She came from a Bengali Hindu family and was the eldest among her siblings. Her father, Aghornath Chattopadhyay, was a renowned scholar and educator, and her mother, Barada Sundari Devi, was a poetess.

Naidu received her early education at the University of Madras, where she excelled in academics. She later moved to England to pursue higher studies. In 1895, she enrolled at King's College, London, and attained a Bachelor's degree in English Literature. During her time in London, she also actively participated in public speaking events, which helped polish her oratory skills.

After completing her education in England, Naidu returned to India in 1898. She got married to Dr. Govindarajulu Naidu, a non-Brahmin and a social worker, who supported her in her activism and writing endeavors.

Despite being a mother of five children, Naidu actively participated in India's freedom struggle and played a significant role in the women's movement. She joined the Indian National Congress in 1904 and quickly became one of its prominent leaders.

Throughout her life, Naidu's passion for literature remained strong. She wrote poetry in English and had a distinct writing style that combined both Indian and Western influences. Her poetry often focused on themes of freedom, nationalism, and social justice. Some of her notable works include "The Golden Threshold," "The Feather of the Dawn," and "The Broken Wing." Her contribution to both literature and politics remains an inspiration for many.


Political career and activism

Sarojini Naidu was a prominent Indian political leader and activist during the Indian independence movement in the early 20th century. She played a crucial role in mobilizing women and advocating for their rights.

Naidu began her political career in 1904 when she joined the Indian National Congress (INC), a political party at the forefront of the freedom struggle. As a member of the INC, she worked closely with prominent leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.

Here is an overview of her political career and activism:

Women's Rights Activism:

Sarojini Naidu was deeply committed to empowering women and fought for their rights throughout her life. She was one of the first Indian women to join the Indian National Congress and actively participated in the suffragette movement. Naidu called for equal rights for women, including the right to vote, access to education, and economic independence.

Indian National Congress:

Naidu was an active member of the Indian National Congress (INC), the largest political organization fighting for Indian independence. She joined the organization at a young age and quickly became a prominent figure. Naidu participated in several national movements organized by the INC, including the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Leading Rallies and Protests:

Naidu was known for her captivating speeches and oratory skills. She would often lead large rallies and protests, mobilizing the masses in support of independence and women's rights. Her speeches inspired people across the country and played a crucial role in galvanizing public support for the Indian freedom struggle.

International Advocacy:

Sarojini Naidu represented India on various international platforms, advocating for independence and drawing attention to the plight of the Indian people under British rule. She spoke at conferences and meetings, highlighting the Indian perspective and conveying the aspirations of the Indian people for self-rule.

Civil Rights Activism:

Naidu fought against discriminatory laws and policies in British India. She actively campaigned against the Rowlatt Act, which allowed for prosecutions without trial and curtailed civil liberties. She was also vocal in supporting the Khilafat movement, which aimed to protect the rights of Muslims in India.

President of the Indian National Congress:

In 1925, Sarojini Naidu became the first woman to be elected as the president of the Indian National Congress. Her presidency marked a significant milestone in the history of the organization and gave a voice to women in Indian politics. She used her position to further push for women's rights and independence.

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Literary contributions and achievements

  1. Poetry: Sarojini Naidu is primarily known for her poetry, which is characterized by its lyrical beauty and musicality. Her poetry is deeply influenced by the romantic tradition of English literature and also incorporates elements of Indian culture and tradition. Some of her famous poems include "The Bangle Sellers," "In the Bazaars of Hyderabad," and "The Palanquin Bearers."
  2. Essays and Prose: In addition to her poetry, Naidu also wrote essays and prose works on various social and political issues. She was an ardent advocate for women's rights and social reform, and her writings often reflected these concerns. Some of her notable works include "The Sceptred Flute," "The Broken Wing," and "The Bird of Time."
  3. Political and social activism: Naidu was actively involved in the Indian independence movement and participated in leadership roles. She played a key role during the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 and was arrested multiple times for participating in protests. Her writings often reflected her nationalist sentiments.
  4. Translations: Naidu translated several Indian works into English, making them more accessible to the Western audience. Notable translations include the works of Rabindranath Tagore, another prominent Indian poet and Nobel Laureate.
  5. Public speaking: She was known for her powerful oratory skills and delivered many inspiring speeches. Her speeches addressed various issues, including women's rights, nationalism, and the need for independence.
  6. Education and women's empowerment: As the President of the All India Women's Conference in 1925, Naidu worked towards promoting education and empowerment for women. She advocated for women's suffrage and equal opportunities in education and employment.
  7. International Recognition: Naidu's literary achievements earned her international acclaim and recognition. She was invited to various international conferences and cultural events, where she represented India and advocated for its independence. She became a prominent figure on the global literary scene and was admired by writers and intellectuals from around the world.

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Legacy and impact on Indian society

Sarojini Naidu's works shed light on themes such as caste discrimination, rural poverty, education, and communal harmony. Her writings gave voice to the marginalized, created awareness, and brought about social change.

Her influence extended beyond India's borders. As an ambassador to various countries, including the United States, Naidu represented India and worked towards garnering support for India's independence struggle. Her global presence and diplomatic skills helped in building international alliances and showcasing India's fight for freedom on a larger stage.



The biography of Sarojini Naidu is a testament to the power of resilience, determination, and unwavering commitment to social justice.

Naidu emerged as a prolific poet, fervent activist, and influential political leader, breaking barriers and paving the way for women's empowerment in India. Her remarkable journey serves as an inspiration to aspiring individuals worldwide, reminding us of the potential for greatness that lies within each of us.

Through her indomitable spirit and tireless efforts, Sarojini Naidu left an indelible mark on the history of India and continues to be a beacon of hope for generations to come.



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FAQs about Sarojini Naidu

When did Sarojini died?

2 March, 1949.

What was Sarojini Naidu famous for?

Sarojini Naidu was famous for being an Indian independence activist, poet, and politician. She played a significant role in the Indian freedom struggle and was also known as the Nightingale of India due to her poetry.

How Sarojini Naidu is a freedom fighter?

Sarojini Naidu actively participated in the Indian independence movement and played a crucial role as a freedom fighter. She joined the Indian National Congress and worked closely with Mahatma Gandhi and other prominent leaders. She organized and led protests, demonstrations, and campaigns against British rule, promoting non-violence and civil disobedience as means of achieving independence. Naidu gave powerful speeches and wrote inspiring poems and songs, using her literary talent to mobilize and unite the masses. She was instrumental in the Salt Satyagraha and the Quit India Movement and was arrested numerous times for her activities. Sarojini Naidu's unwavering dedication and contribution to the freedom struggle make her an important figure in India's fight for independence.

Why is Sarojini called the Nightingale of India?

Sarojini Naidu is called the Nightingale of India because, much like the beautiful and melodious songbird, her poetry was deeply evocative, lyrical, and had the power to uplift and touch the hearts of readers. She was known for her eloquent and expressive verses that highlighted the struggles, aspirations, and beauty of Indian society. Sarojini's poetic talent and resonating voice made her a beloved figure in Indian literature, earning her the title of the Nightingale of India.